Note that the selfish choice, defection, has the highest payoff for the individual, but mutual defection has a lower payoff than mutual cooperation. In species that take care of their young, the next level of complexity is what I'd call parental behavior. Odd as this may sound, neuroscience is replete with illustrations. Instead, they enter the nervous system value-free, without any emotions attached: the senses of smell and taste through our nose and tongue, the sense of touch through the skin and up the spinal cord, vision and hearing and our sense of balance from our eyes and ears. The book has been edited so that it should be understandable to any person with a college education. After all, he is likely to be larger and more ferocious than his mate, the mother, who is burdened with the job of nursing and feeding the young and might well feel depleted.
Among these are a brain chemical called enkephalin and its receptor, which inhibit pain under a wide variety of circumstances. I believe that these brain chemicals, by causing a partial painkilling effect, permit females to put up with mating behaviors by males that might otherwise be obnoxious. And it is tuned in on other major systems in the brain both to make sure that no danger goes unnoticed and to signal that action is needed in risky situations. The universality of the Golden Rule is like the ubiquity of the primary means of communication among human beings: speech, which has developed, albeit with slight variations, among every human society known. But it's regulated and useful. Any part of them, damped down, would allow us to run our sense of self together with our sense of another human being—indeed, this is precisely what I hypothesize happens next. Once Nature comes up with ingenious ways of doing things, it does not throw them away: the mechanisms required for male-female courtship and for parental care are at the service of more complex social relations, of the sort needed to maintain the Golden Rule.
To achieve sustainability, these external changes need to be supplemented with inner changes to bring a shift from materialistic values to human values: love, truth, right conduct, peace, and nonviolence, leading to relationships that are selfless, loving, and nonexploitative. One of the neuroanatomists who has worked longest and most systematically on this type of question is Larry Swanson, at the University of Southern California. Contents: Subway story -- The golden rule -- Being afraid -- Memory of fear -- Losing oneself -- Sex and parental love -- Sociability -- The urge to harm -- Murder and other mayhem -- Balancing act -- Temperament in the making -- A new paradigm. Thus, part of the way in which testosterone increases aggression is through its stimulation of genes involved in carrying the chemical message transmitted by vasopressin. That is, societies in which most individuals behave unselfishly will last longer and better than societies in which too few people show reciprocal altruism.
Axelrod and Hamilton emphasize that if the players were never going to play one another again, defection might be the best strategy. He also has a rare ability to explain science in an entertaining and highly understandable way. In our time, Alasdair MacIntyre, professor emeritus in the Department of Philosophy at Duke University, points out that day-to-day human life requires values such as truth telling, promise keeping, and a balanced fairness among individuals. The evolution of cooperation is actually fairly easy to work out, because it follows mechanical steps. While that is hardly a complete explanation, I do have confidence that causes of violence have neurobiological roots. Genetic responses to stress hormones may depend on which of these patterns is holding sway.
Moreover, despite the emotional complexity attached to it by humans, in biological terms sex is governed by some of the most basic and simple brain mechanisms compared with other endeavors, and neuroscientists turn to it as one of the easiest behaviors to study. Axelrod has devised computer tournaments that test a wide variety of strategies submitted by mathematicians, economists, sociologists, and political scientists. McEwen, writing in The End of Stress as We Know It, adds that many of the ways in which chronic stress affects our states of fear and anxiety may be indirect; they may not start in the brain at all. What actually takes place when people or animals, for that matter form a new social bond or strike a new friendship? And we have so many examples of problems. The brain keeps constant track of our actions and their consequences, and these active movements and the signals emanating from them are crucial for normal eye-hand coordination. The downsides: given the presumed target audience he could have benefited by slowing down and explaining the neurobiology of it all in simpler terms, or provided a glossary.
Nevertheless, we will raise several objections against the straightforward use of these experiments in pro-enhancement arguments. Brain hormones are a part of this complicated process, and The Neuroscience of Fair Play discusses how brain hormones can catalyze behaviors with moral implications in such areas as self-sacrifice, parental love, friendship, and violent aggression. Consider layers of explanation to be like an onion: neuroscience may be at the core, but it takes all the layers to make an onion. I am fascinated by why one person may behave one way and another person behaves differently. The loss of the prolactin receptor gene, which has not yet been studied in males, significantly harms maternal behaviors in the female mouse. Oxytocin released in the brain modestly moves the balance between distrust and trust of others towards the latter.
Nevertheless, the brain itself is endowed with the capacity to overcome this separateness by Universal Love. In no shortage of behaviors, however, the Golden Rule is obviously overturned. Since most mammalian babies cannot care for themselves, they must be brought to a place where they can be kept safe, warm, clean, and adequately fed. Besser, with gruesome effects to his guts and blood, she loses the mental and emotional difference between his blood and guts and her own. Laurie Carr and Gian Luigi Lenzi found greater activity during imitation than during observation, not only in several sites below the cerebral cortex for example, the hypothalamus and the septum, whose activation produces involuntary reactions such as rage, fear, tears, or orgasm but also in a primitive part of the cortex itself. She avoids an unethical act because of shared fear. In my lab, for example, in explaining mechanisms for behaviors that are different between males and females, we have shown that patterns of genes govern patterns of behaviors.
First, Ron deKloet, then at Utrecht University in the Netherlands, figured out that there is not just one kind of stress hormone receptor in the brain but two: one of them is extremely sensitive to those first, short exposures to stress, but long and strong exposure brings in the second receptor, which activates an entirely different kind of molecular biological signaling system. Now we can analyze the mechanisms underlying aggressive behaviors in animals and humans with the tools of molecular biology, physiology, genetics, and quantitative behavioral science. However, the Buddhists teach that our human existence is one with the universal spirit Anatman. In the 1940s, the physiologist Erich von Holst reasoned as follows. Motherly love If there ever was a symbol of love that knows no limits, it is that of motherly love. Third comes the crucial step: she blurs the difference between the other person and herself. The biological significance of such a simple negative feedback loop is that it holds the steroid stress hormones secreted from the adrenal glands at a constant level.