Dresden At the electoral court in Dresden, Italian and German arts flourished from the time of Johann Georg I 1611—1656 until the time of August the Strong 1694—1733. It was, moreover, closely connected with the equally fashionable petrarchan love poem. This end was achieved in the work of Joachin du Bellay 1522—1560 and Pierre de Ronsard 1524—1585. He provides a definition of the genre that is based on both form and subject matter of such poems. Our talks about music and literature—most notably Bach and Reve, those disparate and yet oddly connected practitioners of mystical love—I eternally cherish, in love. Assuage my desire, O fairest of all! Otherwise I have the same musical object in church. His collections were sold and reprinted in large numbers.
Like its textual representation, the musical expression of mystical love derives from the historical contingencies already described. While contemporary games have always handled certain problematic topics, such as war, disasters, human decay, post-apocalyptic futures, cruelty and betrayal, lately even the most playful of genres are introducing situations in which players are presented with difficult ethical and moral dilemmas. Staden and a historic concert arranged by Sigmund Theophil Staden in 1643, in which all the poets and musicians of the city worked together. Routledge Advances in Game Studies, no. As more of baroque vocal music became accessible from the second half of the nineteenth century, notably the cantatas of Buxtehude and Bach, it was discovered that instead of simply being settings of the text of the Song of Songs, the biblical imagery was developed and expanded in ways that seemed ambiguous with regard to divine and human love, and in which the distinction between sacred and secular was significantly blurred.
In his Dialogi oder Gesprächen zwischen Gott u. However, if we recognize that the baroque love discourse described both secular and mystical love in images derived from petrarchism and that the musical articulation of these subjects conformed precisely to the petrarchan conventions of the concept and discourse of love, then the analysis is provided with an illuminating cultural—historical background. How do they play out in differing media? It sheds new light on the seemingly erotic overtones in settings of the Song of Songs and dialogues between Christ and the faithful soul in late 17th- and early 18th-century cantat Mystical Love in the German Baroque: Theology, Poetry, Music identifies the cultural and devotional conventions underlying expressions of mystical love in poetry and music of the German baroque. For what is more usual than the musical Epizeuxis or Subjectio, where a particular sound is repeated forcefully in the very same part of the melody? Of the second generation of Silesian poets, Christian Hofmann von Hofmannswaldau studied in Leiden between 1639 and 1641, then traveled through the Netherlands, England, and France to Italy, where he was impressed and influenced by the love poetry of Marino. The three parts of his Weltlichen Oden oder Liebesgesänge 1642—1643; Part 3 Geist- und weltliche Oden und Madrigalien, 1649 contained petrarchan love poems by Paul Fleming, Gottfried Finckelthaus, Ernst Christoph Homburg, Martin Opitz, Justus Georg Schottelius, and others. This emphasis on the style being imitated facilitated the application of the petrarchan and madrigal styles to Lutheran themes. Sound as a Stylistic Resource Dean T.
To achieve such effects the poet must strive to excite amazement or grief or compassion, though the former more than the latter. The great English flowering of this genre is largely due to the madrigal composer, collector, and publisher Thomas Morley. Their madrigals had the same richly contrastive and pictorial character as their texts. If metaphors are subtle, they shine splendidly; if they are sensible, they instruct clearly; if they are powerful, they strike forcefully. In this respect the decisions Opitz makes in his translation are characteristic of his normative poetics, oriented not toward originality but toward structured imitation.
Johann Mattheson quotes the poet Lohenstein in order to highlight the influence of music on the human soul: Lohenstein sagt: das Gesicht, der Geruch, der Geschmack und das Fühlen dienen dem Leibe; der einige Sinn des Gehörs aber ist unsrer Seele und unsern Sitten bestimmet und vorbehalten. In conclusion, however, I must reiterate that no single poetic genre in the German language is better suited to music than a madrigal. Psychological dark play, the notion that gaming might disclose the hidden layers of player psychology, was first introduced in the Silent Hill series Konami 1999-2012. Vincenzo Galilei, Fronimo dialogo, nel quale si contengono le vere, et necessarie regole del intavolare la musica nel liuto Venice 1586 , 13. Representation of Cruelty and the Principles of Tragedy Affectively powerful rhetorical devices, pictorial diction, and sensuous metaphor could be variously employed and combined in the baroque arts in accordance with the affective theme of a particular poem or composition. See Rudolf Jentzsch, Der deutsch-lateinische Büchermarkt nach den Leipziger Ostermesskatalogen von 1740, 1770 and 1800 in seiner Gliederung und Wandlung PhD diss.
Stephen Greenblatt, Shakespearean Negotiations: The Circulation of Social Energy in Renaissance England Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988 , 3. In the process, aspects of received opinion are here proved to be either inaccurate or misleading, or both. Ziegler, Von den Madrigalen, 17ff. First of all a composer should pay good heed to the meaning of the text or sentence, examine it, and observe in which mode he should compose and set the harmony or song: for just as a poet cannot express and make manifest every material in every poetic genre. They provided poetic and discursive catalogues of the metaphors and idioms of all the famous German poets. The dissonant effect generated by the extensive chromaticism, the modal shifts, the slow, chromatically descending parallel thirds between soprano and bass, and the fauxbourdon between alto and tenor express this theme almost palpably. It was therefore thematically connected to ambivalent love.
The poet has so thoroughly assimilated the subject of unattainable love that it dominates his poems thematically as well as formally and stylistically. Hildesheim: Olms, 1970 , A313, A544, A547, A586, A597, and B143. The combination of sorrowfully descending melodies with pleasing parallel thirds in this passage seems to express the bitter-sweet ambivalence of love. While these have been interpreted solely as a secularizing tendency within devotional music of the baroque period, this book demonstrates that they need to be viewed instead as intensifications of the sacred. Joachim Burmeister, Musica Autoschediastike, preface. We can examine how the boundaries were marked between cultural practices understood to be art forms and other, contiguous, forms of expression. I have here had occasion to take on once more just such a piece without basso continuo and perhaps in this way to encourage others, particularly budding German composers, that before they proceed to concertato style, they should first bite on this hard nut since it contains the true kernel and true foundation of good counterpoint and execute their first endeavour in it.
New Musicology has stated that music refers intertextually to its own history or background. Furthermore, the expressive resources of petrarchan poetry and the madrigal were thematically and stylistically almost inseparably bound together. In addition to his own poetry, Opitz particularly recommends the work of Ronsard and Heinsius; he famously stated that the love poem was an ideal exercise genre, since love offered the poet a rich source of inspiration:. From 1550 until the late seventeenth century the Dresden court chapel, for example, always included Italian musicians as well as Germans. It all starts with the music. Special attention is paid to the role of sound and music in this development from survival horror to psychological horror.
On the other hand, petrarchan poetry also had a literary—historical function. Musical acuity and virtuosity could also evoke both worldly and religious emotion. The Italian plays are almost entirely madrigals; and there must be in every line if not a complete sensus, then at least half. The Singleton Translation: an Authoritive Text Criticism, ed. Bembo disintegrates further in the takeover. Sonsten aber ist in dem Stylo recitativo in acht zunehmen, daß man im Zorn die Stimme erhebt, hingegen in Betrübnis fallen lasst. Harper, German Secular Song-Books of the Mid-Seventeenth Century: An Examination of the Texts in Collections of Songs Published in the German-Language Area between 1624 and 1660 Aldershot: Ashgate, 2003 , 158—165.