Within each state, researchers interviewed between 8 and 11 educational policymakers who represented a diverse array of positions and organizations. Educational leadership in the states: A cultural analysis. Educational indicator systems: Observations on their structure, interpretation, and use. Which of these are management, and which are leadership? The states as polities: Reformed, reinvigorated, resourceful. The user has requested enhancement of the downloaded file.
A major research project, conducted in the United States, examined the effects of leadership at multiple levels on student learning. International Journal of Educational Development , 20 2 , 93- 107. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 8 4 , 347- 378. Educational Policy, 10 3 , 399- 421. She also teaches and advises in all areas of educational policy and administration. High-stakes testing, uncertainty, and student learning.
Most important, they have tended to assume that people are essentially untrustworthy and that the best way to achieve organizational goals is to supervise them closely, showing them what needs to be done and telling them how to do it, lest their natural inclinations lead to the dissipation of effort and the unraveling of progress. Principals know that creating a school culture that ensures positive outcomes for students is not easily done. A moral framework and leader character and virtue shine a beacon onto decision making and action. In this paper, we undertake four formative assignments: 1 We introduce the idea of Positive Sch. Seemingly random contacts with novel ideas as well as structured efforts to examine data and plan new programs may both produce forward momentum. Collective responsibility, in which all members feel accountable for all students, is at the core of intensified leadership.
Professionalism and community: Perspectives on reforming urban schools. Garbage can models of decision making in organizations. Annual Review of Sociology, 23, 361- 383. Creating a public accountability for California schools. We are not advocating the abandonment of instructional leadership: principals clearly need to understand and support what teachers do in classrooms in order to help create the conditions that allow them to be more effective.
State activism in education reform: Applying the Rasch model to measure trends and examine policy coherence. Canadian Journal of Political Science, 19 4 , 775- 793. Character states and virtues that are featured in positive psychology and positive organizational scholarship include passion, optimism, authenticity, benevolence, respect, transparency, courage, and resilience. Rather it is principled and puts personal and professional ethics on center stage in leadership practice. She has received numerous awards, including the Lifetime Contributions to Staff Development award from the National Staff Development Association 2007 , the Campbell Lifetime Achievement Award from the University Council for Educational Administration 2009 , and a Life Member designation from the International Congress for School Effectiveness and School Improvement. The impact of state activism on local school systems.
Five hundred thirty-three trainees 50. Kruse is a professor in the Department of Educational Foundations and Leadership at the University of Akron. Quality counts: A decade of standards-based education: Indiana highlight reports. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 19 1 , 29- 43 Leithwood, K. The Western Political Quarterly, 38 3 , 413- 423.
When viewed as strategic actions, building professional communities, creating opportunities for organizational learning, and developing trust are not things done once. Nor is the culture that emerges from these efforts something you can claim to have become and then ignore. What can we see when we look at a school where administrators are doing both, and who are, at the same time, engaging professional colleagues and others with a clear stake in school success? Data withholding had demonstrated negative effects on trainees. Agendas, alternatives and public policies. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 10 2 , 75- 88. In schools trust is considered to be the result of several dispositions working in concert, among these are integrity or honesty and openness , concern also called benevolence or personal regard for others , competence, and reliability or consistency. Thus, improving culture is not an end in itself, but the means by which school leaders can address the goals of student progress and achievement.
Instead of relying on a deficit-based perspective, it emphasizes the strengths that individuals and communities bring to K-12 education. Principals know that creating a school culture that ensures positive outcomes for students is not easily done. Teachers College Record, 104 4 , 787- 811. A Fellow of the American Educational Research Association, she also served as the Vice President of Division A, and on the Executive Board of the University Council for Educational Administration. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. Leadership and professional learning communities: Possibilities, practice and performance. Retrieved October 13, 2006, from Reeves, M.
Teachers College Record, 96 3 , 432- 457. Rather, it is an orientation toward school leadership. Two hundred forty-six trainees 23. Politics and culture: A less fissured terrain. Yet, bringing staff, teachers and parents together to do the work of the school is not easy. Capitalism and democracy reappraised: A review essay. Given that there are few longitudinal studies examining the way personnel strategies are made in higher education, we hope that this paper will provide a useful frame of reference for developing research on institutions of higher education as work environments.